How are gems formed?
Jewelry was actually one of the first things mentioned in written sources a long time ago when a letter first arose.
Where do real amethysts come from? You've probably seen quartz - a brilliant crystalline mineral that can often be found in the most common rocks. Amethyst is a kind of quartz. Violet, however, this quartz does not at all the wine of Bacchus. Earlier it was believed that manganese and iron give amethyst coloring. But then it was established that the violet color of the stone is explained by differently charged iron ions and defects in the crystal lattice of the mineral. (The lattice defects are deviations from the ideal spatial orientation.) However, under the action of the energy of sunlight, the orderliness of these defects is disturbed, and the amethyst may lose its color over time, turning into plain colorless or slightly colored quartz. The ability of amethyst to bleach when calcined has been known to jewelers since antiquity.
Like amethyst, most gems are minerals, that is, solid natural bodies. However, there are a few exceptions. Pearls grow around grains of sand or other foreign particles in the body of some mollusks; golden amber is a resin of ancient trees, hardened and turned into stone over time. But when people say "gems", they usually mean red rubies, green emeralds, transparent diamonds and other minerals that sparkle with all the colors of the rainbow that we wear in rings, necklaces and bracelets. Precious stones are formed in the bowels of the earth under special conditions. If there are necessary substances in the depths, then diamonds, sapphires and garnets can crystallize in hot liquid (molten) rocks under high pressure. Some gems, such as rubies.
The dazzling colors of gems depend mainly on their composition. For example, take a gray-white corundum mineral consisting of aluminum and oxygen molecules. If a little aluminum is replaced with chromium, the mineral will turn a blood-red color, turning it into ruby. If iron and titanium particles appear in corundum, sapphire is formed in blue. The color of the stone depends on how different elements absorb and reflect waves of light of different lengths (colors).
The light in gems creates many unusual effects, such as the iridescent iridescence of opals or the quieter iridescence of premium pearls. Gems can change colors even depending on the kind of light falling on them. For example, pale amethyst may appear pink in the bright rays of the sun and purple by the light of a fluorescent lamp.
Special brilliance of precious stones gives them a workshop cut. Due to the facets, the light is refracted and reflected inside the stone and back, returning to the person looking at it. Thus, we see sparkling colors and bright luster, as if emitted by stones from the inside.